What is the composition of arterial plaque?

What is the composition of arterial plaque?

Arterial plaque is made up of materials that enter the artery wall from the bloodstream. These include fat, cholesterol, calcium, waste products from cells and a clotting agent called fibrin. This is why your physician tests your cholesterol levels.

What is atheroma plaque?

Atheromatous plaque (atheromas) can develop on the intima of large- and medium-caliber arteries. Plaque is an accumulation of cholesterol and other lipid compositions that forms on the inner walls of vessels. This deposit is covered by a cap of fibrosity.

What causes the plaque to form on an atheroma?

As long as those blood vessels are clear and open, blood can flow freely. Sometimes small blockages build up inside your blood vessels. These blockages are called plaques. They develop when cholesterol sticks to the wall of the artery.

What is the difference between plaque and atheroma?

Atherosclerotic plaque from a carotid endarterectomy specimen. This shows the division of the common into the internal and external carotid arteries. An atheroma, or atheromatous plaque (“plaque”), is an abnormal accumulation of material in the inner layer of the wall of an artery.

Which plaque is most prone to rupture?

Mechanisms of Plaque Rupture. Plaque rupture occurs where the cap is thinnest and most infiltrated by foam cells (macrophages). In eccentric plaques, the weakest spot is often the cap margin or shoulder region,86 and only extremely thin fibrous caps are at risk of rupturing.

What makes up the plaque in an atheroma?

An atheroma, or atheromatous plaque (“plaque”), is an accumulation of degenerative material in the inner layer of an artery wall. The material consists of mostly macrophage cells, or debris, containing lipids, calcium and a variable amount of fibrous connective tissue.

Where are smooth muscle cells deposited in atheroma?

2. Lipid is deposited in the intima and macrophages digest this, forming foam cells 3. Smooth muscle infiltrates & proliferates, connective tissue forms a thin fibrous cap on the surface Accumulation of lipid and foam cells with inflammation and smooth muscle infiltration in early atheromatous plaques.

Where does atheroma occur in the human body?

Atheroma occurs in large elastic and muscular arteries such as the aorta, coronary, femoral, and carotid arteries, and especially at predisposed sites such as bifurcations where there is flow disturbance. Plaques form on the basis of fatty streaks that may be present very early in life.

How are atheromas related to hardening of arteries?

These form as patchy areas of plaque and contribute to the hardening of arteries, a condition known as atherosclerosis. Atheromas do not develop overnight but instead take months or years to accumulate, becoming larger and thicker. Over time, a patch of atheroma can make an artery narrower, restricting and reducing blood flow through the vessel.