How does water loss occurs in cooling tower?
How does water loss occurs in cooling tower?
As air rises inside the tower, it receives the latent heat of vaporization from the water, and thus the water is cooled. As a rule of thumb, for every 10°F (5.5°C) of water cooling, 1% total mass of water is lost due to evaporation.
Do cooling towers waste water?
A typical cooling tower (500 ton, running 24 hrs day. 365 days per year) will flush over 3.9 Million gallons of water down the drain each year.
How could the amount of water loss in a cooling tower be reduced?
Water consumption can be reduced by: Improving the quality of feed water • Optimising the cooling tower process, and • Removing solids from blowdown water before recirculating this water into the system.
How much water does a cooling tower evaporation?
Therefore, every tower ton (15,000 BTU/hr) requires approximately 1.8 gallons of water evaporation, or . 03 gpm/ton. As water evaporates in a cooling tower system, the water vapor enters the atmosphere while any dissolved solids remain behind, building concentration in the remaining water.
What are the types of cooling towers?
The types of cooling towers based on the air flow generation are Natural draft, Mechanical draft, Cross-flow and Counter-flow towers.
- Natural Draft cooling towers use the design and shape of the tower itself to move up the air naturally using fans.
- Mechanical Draft towers tend to use a fan to force the air.
How effective are cooling towers?
iii) Cooling tower effectiveness (in percentage) is the ratio of range, to the ideal range, i.e., difference between cooling water inlet temperature and ambient wet bulb temperature, or in other words it is = Range / (Range + Approach).
How can we increase the efficiency of cooling tower?
How to Increase Your Industrial Cooling Tower Efficiency
- Save energy.
- Reduce the amount of water being consumed.
- Decrease the amount of chemicals required for water treatment.
- Extend the equipment service life.
- Reduce operating costs, overall.
What is blowdown loss in cooling tower?
When water evaporates from a cooling tower, solids that were in that water remain in the tank, being redistributed into the existing water. This process is called blowdown, and blowdown loss is the amount of water lost during the blowdown process in your cooling tower.
Which type of cooling tower is more efficient?
The film type of fill is the more efficient and provides same heat transfer in a smaller volume than the splash fill. Cold water basin: The cold water basin, located at or near the bottom of the tower, receives the cooled water that flows down through the tower and fill.
What is ORP in cooling tower?
Chlorine is used as an oxidizing biocide to control this biological growth in most industrial cooling towers. ORP is a measure of a solutions oxidizing or reducing strength. The chemical way to look at redox processes is that the reductant transfers electrons to the oxidant.
What is a good ORP level for cooling tower?
Although it can be difficult to correlate ppm levels of chlorine or bromine to specific ORP levels, those in the 400-500 mV range are good indicators of a protected tower while levels below 200 mV indicate a potential problem.
What happens to the water in a cooling tower?
It can be as low as 0.01 % of circulation flow, if the cooling tower has windage drift eliminators. Blowdown discards a portion of the concentrated circulating water due to the evaporation process in order to lower the system solids concentration.
What should I do if my cooling tower is overflowing?
In such cases, strong airflow in the sump can cause choppiness on the water surface and water overflow. The water level in the sump should be regularly checked to ensure it is adequately below the overflow outlet to avoid excessive water use. Keep air handler coils well maintained.
How is drift loss controlled in a cooling tower?
Drift loss is small compared to evaporation and blowdown and is controlled with baffles and drift eliminators. Blowdown: When water evaporates from the tower, dissolved solids (such as calcium, magnesium, chloride, and silica) remain in the recirculating water. As more water evaporates, the concentration of dissolved solids increases.
How is COC calculated in a cooling tower?
COC is best described as ratio of chloride content in circulation water and in makeup water. Cycle of concentration is normally 3-4 cycles. When cycle of concentration below 3 cycles, quantity of water to be discharged will be large. Recall again, cooling tower makeup water = evaporation loss + drift loss + blowdown.