What is the mechanism of electrophilic aromatic substitution?

What is the mechanism of electrophilic aromatic substitution?

1. A Mechanism for Electrophilic Substitution Reactions of Benzene. A two-step mechanism has been proposed for these electrophilic substitution reactions. In the first, slow or rate-determining, step the electrophile forms a sigma-bond to the benzene ring, generating a positively charged benzenonium intermediate.

What is electrophilic substitution reaction mechanism?

Electrophilic substitution reactions are chemical reactions in which an electrophile displaces a functional group in a compound, which is typically, but not always, a hydrogen atom. Some aliphatic compounds can undergo electrophilic substitution as well.

What is electrophilic aromatic substitution reaction with example?

Nitration and sulfonation of benzene are two examples of electrophilic aromatic substitution. The nitronium ion (NO2+) and sulfur trioxide (SO3) are the electrophiles and individually react with benzene to give nitrobenzene and benzenesulfonic acid respectively.

How do electrophilic aromatic substitution reactions work?

A key reaction of aromatic compounds is electrophilic aromatic substitution, where a C-H bond is broken and a new C-E bond (E being an electrophilic atom such as Cl, Br, N…) is formed. Alkenes Give “Addition” Products Upon Reaction With Electrophiles.

What is the first step in general mechanism for electrophilic aromatic substitution?

1. Electrophilic Aromatic Substitution Mechanism, Step 1: Attack of The Electrophile (E) By a Pi-bond Of The Aromatic Ring. The first step of electrophilic aromatic substitution is attack of the electrophile (E+) by a pi bond of the aromatic ring.

Which step is rate determining step in the mechanism of electrophilic substitution?

Explanation: Attack by an electrophilic reagent on benzene ring is a rate determining step in electrophilic substitution reaction. It is also the slowest step of the reaction.

Which of the following is an example of electrophilic substitution?

substitution reaction This reaction is known as electrophilic substitution. Examples of electrophilic species are the hydronium ion (H3O+), the hydrogen halides (HCl, HBr, HI), the nitronium ion (NO2+), and sulfur trioxide (SO3).

What are electrophilic reagents explain with few examples?

Electrophilic reagents include positively charged ions, for example, H+ and NO2+; neutral molecules with an electron deficiency, for example, SO3; and highly polarized molecules, for example CH3CO2–Br+.