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What does high light chain levels mean?

What does high light chain levels mean?

If the amount of free light chains is higher or lower than normal, it can mean you have a disorder of the plasma cells. These include multiple myeloma, a cancer of plasma cells, and amyloidosis, a condition that causes a dangerous buildup of proteins in different organs and tissues.

What causes high light chains?

Excess light chain production may be seen with any of the plasma cell disorders, such as multiple myeloma, MGUS (monoclonal gammopathy of unknown significance, a condition that may progress to multiple myeloma), monoclonal light chain (primary) amyloidosis, and others.

What are free light chains in urine?

Bence Jones proteins (monoclonal free light chains of immunoglobulins) are the earliest known biological markers of malignant cell dyscrasia; Bence Jones proteinuria is also present in many types of B cell-related neoplasms. Sometimes, it may also occur in Hodgkin’s disease.

What is usually the first symptom of multiple myeloma?

Signs and symptoms of multiple myeloma can vary and, early in the disease, there may be none. When signs and symptoms do occur, they can include: Bone pain, especially in your spine or chest. Nausea.

What are the 7 signs of multiple myeloma?


  • Bone pain, especially in your spine or chest.
  • Nausea.
  • Constipation.
  • Loss of appetite.
  • Mental fogginess or confusion.
  • Fatigue.
  • Frequent infections.
  • Weight loss.

What is a free kappa light chain?

Free light chains (kappa, lambda , kappa/lambda ratio) They are small protein chains produced by plasma cells, a type of white blood cell that makes large amounts. of a specific antibody that fights bacteria and viruses. Light chains combine with other, longer protein.

What is a Kappa Lambda light chain?

Light chains are proteins produced by immune cells called plasma cells. Also called kappa and lambda light chains, they link together with other proteins (heavy chains) to form immunoglobulins (also known as antibodies) that target and neutralize specific threats to the body such as bacteria and viruses.

What are Lambda free light chains?

Kappa free-light chains are normally monomeric, while lambda free-light chains tend to be dimeric, joined by disulphide bonds. Polymeric forms of both types of free light chain can also occur. In normal individuals, free light chains are rapidly cleared from the blood and catabolised by the kidneys.

What are free light chains?

Immunoglobulin light chains that are circulating in serum in a free (unbound) state are called free light chains (FLCs). Measurement of the serum level of FLCs became practical as a clinical blood test in recent decades. These tests are used as an aid in the diagnosis and monitoring of multiple myeloma and related disorders.