What causes AVM in uterus?

What causes AVM in uterus?

Acquired AVM is reported as a consequence of previous uterine trauma such as curettage procedures, caesarean section or pelvic surgery. It is also associated with infection, retained product of conception, gestational trophoblastic disease, malignancy and exposure to diethlystilboestrol.

How common are uterine AVM?

Uterine arteriovenous malformation (AVM) is a rare condition, with fewer than 100 cases reported in the literature (1). It is a potentially life-threatening condition, as patients may present with profuse bleeding.

Can a uterine AVM go away on its own?

Although AVM-induced massive vaginal hemorrhage is considered a rare disease, it is possible that the actual incidence is higher because of cases not being diagnosed [1]. Asymptomatic AVM might spontaneously disappear without diagnosis.

Can you get pregnant with a uterine AVM?

In a systematic review, bleeding was reported in 84% of patients with AVM, and in 30% of cases of bleeding, blood transfusion was necessary. Barral et al5 described that out of 12 women, three became pregnant after uterine artery UAE, but only one pregnancy was carried to term.

How is AVM of the uterus treated?

AVM may be treated with modalities including uterine artery embolization, hysterectomy, medical (primarily hormonal) therapy, and expectant management.

Can AVM cause miscarriage?

Uterine arteriovenous malformation (AVM) is an uncommon but life-threating source of bleeding. AVM is an abnormal connection between uterine arteries and veins. Patients typically present with vaginal bleeding following miscarriage (medical/surgical) or cesarean section.

Can you get pregnant after UAE?

The trial demonstrated that it is possible to conceive and carry a pregnancy successfully to term after UAE. It also demonstrated the risk of abnormal placentation, low or very low birth weights, and preterm deliveries following the procedure.

What is AVM in ultrasound?

Arteriovenous malformations or AVMs are abnormal connections or passageways between arteries and veins. They are most commonly found in the brain, neck and spine. However, they may also appear in the arms, legs, lungs, liver and reproductive system.

How to diagnose uterine arteriovenous malformation with no obvious cause?

The classical presentation of uterine arteriovenous malformations is often one of severe uterine bleeding with no obvious cause. Although a definitive diagnosis is usually made by pelvic angiography, transvaginal scanning with color Doppler provides a valuable, non‐invasive method of diagnosis 4, 5 .

How to diagnose and treat uterine and pelvic AVMs?

Diagnosis and Treatment of Uterine and Pelvic Arteriovenous Malformations 1 ETIOLOGY. Both pelvic and uterine AVMs result from one or more sites of abnormal direct communication between an artery and a vein without an intervening capillary bed. 2 CLINICAL PRESENTATION. 3 IMAGING. 4 TREATMENT OPTIONS AND OUTCOMES. 5 CONCLUSION.

What are the causes of arteriovenous malformation ( AVM )?

Causes. AVMs are caused by development of abnormal direct connections between arteries and veins, but experts don’t understand why this happens. Certain genetic changes may play a role, but most types are not usually inherited.

What does a uterine arteriovenous fistula look like?

A UAVM consists of a proliferation of vascular channels with fistula formation and an admixture of small, capillary-like channels. The size of these vessels can vary considerably. They are classified as congenital or acquired. The latter is more common and is often described as a uterine arteriovenous fistula.