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What are chemokine receptors?

What are chemokine receptors?

Chemokine receptors are a superfamily of GPCRs that control immune cell behavior; they promote chemotaxis, cell adhesion, and mediator release (see also Chapter 7). The chemokine receptor superfamily is divided into four classes based on the chemokine/ligand interaction motif to which they bind (CC, CXC, CX3C, or XC).

What structures tell us about chemokine receptor function and antagonism?

In parallel, chemokine receptor structures with small molecules reveal complicated and diverse structural foundations of small molecule antagonism and allostery, highlight inherent physicochemical challenges of receptor:chemokine interfaces, and suggest novel epitopes that can be exploited to overcome these challenges.

What are chemokines and what is their function?

The chemokines (or chemotactic cytokines) are a large family of small, secreted proteins that signal through cell surface G protein‐coupled heptahelical chemokine receptors. They are best known for their ability to stimulate the migration of cells, most notably white blood cells (leukocytes).

What is chemokine ligand?

Also known as : “Chemokines” A subgroup of : “Receptor ligands” Created with Raphaël 2.1.0 Gene group hierarchy map Receptor ligands Chemokine ligands. Chemokine Chemokines (Greek -kinos, movement) are a family of small cytokines, or signaling proteins secreted by cells.

Where are chemokine receptor found?

Chemokine receptors are G protein-coupled receptors containing 7 transmembrane domains that are found predominantly on the surface of leukocytes, making it one of the rhodopsin-like receptors.

What is the main function of chemokines?

Chemokines are small protein molecules that are produced by the cells of the immune system. These act as chemoattractants, leading to the migration of immune cells to an infection site so they can target and destroy invading bodies such as microbes.

How are chemokines named?

Chemokines are grouped and named according to their amino acid composition, particularly on the first two cysteine residues of a conserved tetra-cysteine motif. The CC and CXC chemokines form the two largest groups. The molecules CX3CL1, XCL1 and XCL2 are also regarded as chemokines.

Are chemokines and cytokines the same?

Cytokines are an exceptionally large and diverse group of pro- or anti-inflammatory factors that are grouped into families based upon their structural homology or that of their receptors. Chemokines are a group of secreted proteins within the cytokine family whose generic function is to induce cell migration [2, 3].

Is C5a a chemokine?

The ∼47 kDa C5a-R glycoprotein is a member of the family of related G protein-linked chemokine receptors that have seven membrane-spanning domains.

What is the difference between cytokine and chemokine?