Miscellaneous

Do exosomes have mRNA?

Do exosomes have mRNA?

From our present and past work with serum, plasma, urine and CSF, we found that exosomes derived from these bodily fluids contain substantial amounts of different RNA species such as miRNA, mRNA, rRNA, tRNA, scaRNA, snoRNA, snRNA and piRNA.

What are exosomes in simple terms?

Exosomes are best defined as extracellular vesicles that are released from cells upon fusion of an intermediate endocytic compartment, the multivesicular body (MVB), with the plasma membrane.

What do exosomes do?

Abstract: Exosomes are small vesicles comprised of a lipid bilayer containing various proteins, RNAs and bioactive lipids. They act as intercellular messengers that give the ability to communicate between both cells of the same type and other cell types.

Do exosomes have RNA?

Exosomes contain proteins, microRNAs (miRNAs), and messenger RNAs (mRNAs) that can be transferred between cells. The discovery that exosomes contain RNA, and that this encapsulated RNA could potentially be transferred over distances in vivo, reinforced the importance of exosomes in cell-to-cell communication.

Are exosomes RNA?

Why are exosomes important in the translation of mRNA?

Since the 3′-ends of transcripts contain elements conferring subcellular localization of mRNA and are rich in miRNA-binding sites, exosomal RNA may act as competing RNA to regulate stability, localization and translation activity of mRNAs in recipient cells.

How are exosomes isolated from human breast cancer cells?

Exosomes were isolated from the media conditioned by two human breast cancer cell lines, MDA-MB-231 and MDA-MB-436. Exosomal RNA was profiled using the Ion Torrent semiconductor chip-based technology.

Why are 3 ′ UTRs important in the exosome?

The fact that exosomes carry the 3′-UTRs of mRNAs may have important implications for the regulation of gene expression and protein translation in recipient cells. The 3′-UTRs of mRNAs are rich in regulatory sequences. They serve as binding sites for numerous RNA-binding proteins that modulate stability and translational efficiency of mRNAs.

What kind of RNA is secreted by cancer cells?

Exosomes are nanosized (30-100 nm) membrane vesicles secreted by most cell types. Exosomes have been found to contain various RNA species including miRNA, mRNA and long non-protein coding RNAs. A number of cancer cells produce elevated levels of exosomes.