# Can Ekman transport result downwelling?

## Can Ekman transport result downwelling?

Ekman Pumping is the component of Ekman transport that results in areas of downwelling due to the convergence of water. Due to the Coriolis effect the surface water gets pulled 90° to the left of the wind current, therefore causing the water to converge along the coast boundary, leading to Ekman pumping.

### How does Ekman transport affect upwelling?

Ekman transport and the Coriolis Effect make the coastal waters move, on average, 90 degrees to the wind. This means the water near the coast is being pushed west, away from the coast. This, in turn, pulls deep water up to the surface to replace the original surface water. Upwelling can also occur at the equator.

How does downwelling occur?

Downwelling occurs when the water on the surface of the sea becomes denser than the water beneath it and so it sinks. Seawater gets denser when it gets colder or saltier. Most downwelling happens at the poles.

Does convergence cause downwelling?

In (b) the surface waters converge which pushes the sea surface upwards and depresses the thermocline (downwelling).

## What is the difference between the Ekman spiral and Ekman transport?

The impact of the Ekman Spiral is enhanced where geographic features create barriers to the movement of water. Ekman transport is the net motion of a fluid (seawater) as the result of a balance between the Coriolis effect and turbulent drag forces (within surface waters and geographic features (shoreline and seabed).

### How is Ekman transport determined?

Given a measure surface wind stress you can compute the vertical Velocity at the Base of the Ekman Layer. Downward Velocity = Ekman Pumping, Upward Velocity = Ekman Suction Given a measure surface wind stress you can compute the horizontal components of the total mass transport integrated over the the Ekman Layer.

What factors affect downwelling?

With increased emissivity due to the presence of GHG (especially CO2), aerosols, elevated temperature, and often humidity levels (see discussion below on the UBL), the urban atmosphere has the potential to create an enhanced greenhouse effect, very similar to that occurring at the global-scale, which increases the flux …

What downwelling mean?

Downwelling is the process of accumulation and sinking of higher density material beneath lower density material, such as cold or saline water beneath warmer or fresher water or cold air beneath warm air. It is the sinking limb of a convection cell.

## What is convergence associated with?

A convergence zone in meteorology is a region in the atmosphere where two prevailing flows meet and interact, usually resulting in distinctive weather conditions. Large-scale convergence, called synoptic-scale convergence, is associated with weather systems such as baroclinic troughs, low-pressure areas, and cyclones.

### How does downwelling affect productivity?

Downwelling is where surface water is forced downwards, where it may deliver oxygen to deeper water. Downwelling leads to reduced productivity, as it extends the depth of the nutrient-limited layer. As the surface waters diverge, deeper water must be brought to the surface to replace it, creating upwelling zones.

How is Ekman current related to coastal downwelling?

Coastal upwelling occurs where Ekman transport moves surface waters awayfrom the coast; surface waters are replaced by water that wells up frombelow. 3.3. Downwelling Coastal downwelling occurs where Ekman transport moves surface waterstowards the coast; water piles up and sinks below the surface current.

Where does Ekman transport move the surface waters?

Where Ekman transport moves surface waters away from the coast, surface waters are replaced by water that wells up from below in the process known as upwelling. This example is from the Northern Hemisphere.

## How is Ekman transport related to mass conservation?

Ekman Pumping is the component of Ekman transport that results in areas of downwelling due to the convergence of water. As discussed above, the concept of mass conservation requires that a pile up of surface water must be pushed downward.

### Which is the main source of energy for Ekman transport?

Winds are the main source of energy for ocean circulation, and Ekman Transport is a component of wind-driven ocean current. Ekman transport occurs when ocean surface waters are influenced by the friction force acting on them via the wind.